From time to time, a user may compare the measurements of

E21 and S21, with the expectation that they will be similar in signature

and perhaps shifted only by some constant amount. In fact, the

derivation of E21 and S21 and power gain are different, so the resulting

graph traces from these measurements can be significantly different-

this may not be intuitive at first.

Attached is an example file showing the measurements E21 and S21

and also calculated power gain for two simple passive circuits. The

two passive circuits are identical, except that the first circuit uses

ports of equal terminations and the second circuit uses ports with

arbitrarily varying port impedances.

The example illustrates that E21, S21 and power gain are different.

[file]s21_e21_pg_example_v403_jm1.wsp[/file]

E21 and S21, with the expectation that they will be similar in signature

and perhaps shifted only by some constant amount. In fact, the

derivation of E21 and S21 and power gain are different, so the resulting

graph traces from these measurements can be significantly different-

this may not be intuitive at first.

Attached is an example file showing the measurements E21 and S21

and also calculated power gain for two simple passive circuits. The

two passive circuits are identical, except that the first circuit uses

ports of equal terminations and the second circuit uses ports with

arbitrarily varying port impedances.

The example illustrates that E21, S21 and power gain are different.

[file]s21_e21_pg_example_v403_jm1.wsp[/file]