Hi,

TRL uses several air lines during the calibration to cover a wide frequency range, I am wondering how the PNA treats the the problematic frequency points where the length of the line is multiple of half wavelength. Specifically,

(1) is PNA's algorithm based on the original paper by Engen and **** ("Thru-Reflect-Line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 987-993, 1979.) or a more recent paper by Marks ("A multiline method of network analyzer calibration", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1205-1215, 1991.)?

(2) as for Agilent's TRL calibration kits, e.g., the 3.5mm 85052B kit, are the lines designed based on the convention to limit a single pair of lines to have phase difference between 20 to 160 degree, or based on the optimum combination of lengths suggested by Marks?

Many thanks.

TRL uses several air lines during the calibration to cover a wide frequency range, I am wondering how the PNA treats the the problematic frequency points where the length of the line is multiple of half wavelength. Specifically,

(1) is PNA's algorithm based on the original paper by Engen and **** ("Thru-Reflect-Line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 987-993, 1979.) or a more recent paper by Marks ("A multiline method of network analyzer calibration", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1205-1215, 1991.)?

(2) as for Agilent's TRL calibration kits, e.g., the 3.5mm 85052B kit, are the lines designed based on the convention to limit a single pair of lines to have phase difference between 20 to 160 degree, or based on the optimum combination of lengths suggested by Marks?

Many thanks.

For the frequency range that 3.5mm calibration should be valid for (up to 26.5GHz), there are gaps: between 17 and 19GHz, and between 22 and 25GHz. How does the PNA's TRL algorithm treat the gaps? The measurement result after a calibration is always continuous..

## Attachments

And of course this is obvious for this reason: TRL lines have an 8:1 coverate and 16.2/3.9 is less than 8