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Guidelines for Making the Best Power Integrity Measurements

Blog Post created by melissakeysight Employee on Jun 20, 2018

Power Quality Determines the Performance of Your Device

Your product’s functional reliability is directly proportional to the quality of the DC power inside your product. Intuitively this makes sense: Stable DC supplies should not cause issues. Unstable DC supplies can cause unreliable performance.

 

In today’s products, IC density is increasing to provide more features faster. This means there are a larger number of smaller components packed onto each board, which makes your product more susceptible to the effects of poor power. To minimize the trouble power can cause, your design must convert and deliver DC power from the converters to the gates on the IC as effectively as possible. In other words, you want your design to have high power integrity, testing and verifying the integrity is crucial.

 

Tests Required to Validate Power Integrity

Evaluation usually consists of these four steps:

1. Analyze the output of your DC/DC converters without the rest of the circuit turned on.

  • This is to test the supply’s stability, looking for drift and PARD (Periodic and Random Disturbances).

2. Turn on your system and stress the supply under various operating conditions.

  • For example, test static and dynamic load to check the response and high frequency switching while keeping an eye out for transients and noise.

3. If your system has different power saving modes, you’ll evaluate your programmable power rails.

  • You want to ensure your supplies are reaching their intended level with the appropriate latency.

4. Lastly, run some (or all) of these tests again in a temperature chamber or accelerated life tester.

  • It is important to check operation in extreme environmental conditions and how your device will perform over time.

 

The Challenges of Making Power Integrity Measurements

For all the tests described above, you have a specific tolerance band. If the AC signals riding on your DC signal deviates too much, you have poor power integrity and your design is flawed. 

 

There are two major challenges to measuring your power integrity: noise and offset.

 

Noise

Noise from your oscilloscope, probe, and the connection to the DUT, are mixed in to your signal when you measure it. The result is that you don’t see an exact version of your signal on the oscilloscope screen. In light of this, make sure you are using a high-quality measurement system.

 

That means:

  • Choose an oscilloscope with low noise.
  • Choose a probe with low noise and 1:1 attenuation.
  • Connect to your DUT using as short of a lead as possible, with minimal to no probe-tip accessories.

 

Following these guidelines ensures you won’t mistake measurement system noise for power rail noise.

 

Offset

Viewing your AC swing can be difficult when your DC signal is large. To see the full signal on screen, you have to zoom out really far, but then you aren’t looking closely at the AC details. So, what do you do? Use a probe with support for power rail voltages. This is a probe with enough offset to be able to center the signal on screen without blocking DC so you can zoom in on the details of your waveform. What about a DC block, you ask?

 

Probe offset is better than using a DC block because:

1. Blocking capacitors not only block DC, they also block or filter low frequency AC.

 

  • This inhibits the ability to see drift, droop, sag, and other changes to the DC value of the power rail. These attributes are often critical to observe when your FPGAs and microprocessors turn on and off.

5V on a USB device measured with a DC block

Figure 1. 5V on a USB device measured with a DC block.

 

  • Probe offset passes all the AC content to the oscilloscope unfiltered.

5V on a USB device measured with probe offset

Figure 2. 5V on a USB device measured with probe offset.

 

  • In Figure 1, you can see the DC block shows what looks like a stable DC supply. In reality, the supply has some issues that become visible using the power rail probe in Figure 2. The issues can’t be seen with the DC block because it filters out the low frequency drift in the supply.

 

2. When using a DC block, the capacitor can discharge into your oscilloscope and blow out its front end. This is because the power rail you are measuring may exceed the input voltage of the oscilloscope, and the capacitor is being charged with that voltage. You may think you are protecting the oscilloscope from the voltage of your device, but if the capacitor discharges, all that energy will be sent into the front-end of your oscilloscope. This could be a costly repair.

 

3. DC blocks can make documentation of results tedious.

 

  • A DC block blocks all DC information from arriving to your oscilloscope. As a result, the oscilloscope will show the waveform centered at zero volts. Therefore, you need to use a DMM (digital multimeter) to see what the nominal value of the supply is and then manually type this information into any saved data or screen shots. Using a probe with offset means the oscilloscope knows the DC offset and can display things correctly, which makes record keeping easier. The DC offset is considered in any automated measurements or applications.

 

Additional Challenges – Loading and Bandwidth

 

Probe loading can cause your power supply to behave differently than it does without the probe connected or cause measurement errors like sag. So, you’ll also want to use a probe with very low loading.

 

You also want to choose a probe with high bandwidth. As I mentioned in the introduction, devices are now trying to do more at faster speeds. These increased speeds can introduce crosstalk on boards with small dimensions and lanes close together. And with the risk of crosstalk occurring, you’ll need to see transients, which requires high bandwidth. Having more bandwidth is also helpful for viewing high frequency supply noise, which can cause electromagnetic interference.

 

The Right Probe for Power Rail Measurements

Here is a summary of the tips provided above for overcoming power integrity measurement challenges:

 

Use a probe with:

1. Low noise

2. Support for popular rail voltages

3. Low loading

4. High bandwidth

 

If you need a specific product suggestion, use the Keysight N7020A or N7024A (New!) power rail probes.  They both meet the criteria suggested above and summarized below.

 

1. Low noise

  • The N7020A adds only 10% of the oscilloscope noise.
  • The N7024A adds only 30% of the oscilloscope noise.

2. Support for popular rail voltages

  • The N7020A has an offset range of ±24V.
  • The N7024A has an offset range of ±15.25V.

3. Low loading

  • The N7020A has an offset range of ±24V.
  • The N7024A has an offset range of ±15.25V.

4. High bandwidth

  • The N7020A has 2 GHz of bandwidth.
  • The N7024A has 6 GHz of bandwidth.

 

Power rail probe

 

Both probes work with Keysight Infiniium oscilloscopes, which have amazing signal integrity, low noise, and plenty of bandwidth. Additionally, they are compatible with special probing tips that help probe common surface mount capacitors packages.

 

Attribute

N7020A

N7024A

Probe bandwidth (-3dB)

2 GHz

6 GHz

Attenuation ratio

1.1:1

1.3:1

Offset range

± 24V

±15.25V

Input impedance at DC

50kΩ +/-2%

50kΩ +/-2%

Probe noise

0.1 * scope noise

0.3 * scope noise

Active signal range

± 850mV about offset voltage

± 600mV about offset voltage

Probe type

Single-ended

Single-ended

Included accessories

(orderable separately)

N7021A - Coaxial pigtail probe head (qty 3): 8”

N7022A - Main cable: 48”

N7023A – 350 MHz browser: 45”

Compatible, not included

N7032A 4 GHz browser for 0603 and 0805 packages (inch code)

N7033A 5 GHz browser for 0201 and 0402 packages (inch code)

1250-4403 Rotating SMA adapter

Output impedance

50Ω

50Ω

Extended temperature range

N7021A main cable, N7022A pigtail probe head: -40° to + 85° C

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