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stmichel
    Progress in photonic integrated circuit (#PIC) technology and applications is accelerating with the onset of an industrial ecosystem comprised of #InP and #SiP foundries, commercial modeling tools, and photonic test capability. Bringing optical test deeper from package level into the semiconductor process is an important step to assure… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
Moving to the next higher data speed class of #400 Gbps or# 600 Gbps, the question is again how transmission efficiency can be further increased. In the #optical communications world, capacity gains come essentially from three variables: more carriers through techniques such as polarization and multi-carrier #OFDM modulation, better spectrum… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
    Today’s data center infrastructure is continuously optimized to address bandwidth capacity growth, power, reach and service differentiation. Higher transmission rates, more transmission lanes and new multi-level data formats like PAM-4 address the increased transmission bandwidth demand for the next generation data center interconnects. The… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
The combination of the spectral efficient PAM4 modulation together with the mature direct modulation / direct detection technology has been chosen by the #802.3bs and #802.3cd task forces [i] to address the urgent demand for more capacity and accelerating cost-per-bit reduction in intra and inter data center communication links. The shift from NRZ… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
#Optical coherent transmission, initially used in long-haul transmission, is getting deployed in #metro networks, and is expected to make its way to #data center interconnects. Each product generation increases transmission speed by moving to higher symbol rates and higher-order #QAM constellations. Today’s 100G systems that use quadrature phase… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In addition to USB, the Type-C connector allows implementation of Alternate technologies like DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, and HDMI.   A recent announcement from Intel will radically change future generations of Type-C implementations: https://newsroom.intel.com/editorials/envision-world-thunderbolt-3-everywhere/   We will focus on the 2 key points… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
As people use more applications on their phones, tablets, computers, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the  network needed to deliver the data is constantly being upgraded for the constantly increasing bandwidth demand. Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signaling is a leading contender for implementing the 56G lane data rate which… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
With the widespread move to wafer-scale production with integrated photonics technology, the throughput for testing needs to be optimized. A significant part of the time for optical testing on wafers and chips is often used for optimizing the probe coupling. An extra aspect of this for optical coupling involves testing with the intended… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
Standardization for next generation data communications links operating at 400 Gb/s continues to make steady progress.  With the basic architectures defined, the task of setting link budgets and subsequent transmitter and receiver specifications is also moving forward.  Making the leap from 100 Gb/s to 400 Gb/s is not trivial, as technology is… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
Enabling 400G / 1T coherent communications requires the generation and analysis of test signals using more complex modulation formats such as 64-QAM and higher symbol rates up to 64 GBd. Reaching these speeds imposes much higher requirements on each of the individual parts of a data transmission system. It becomes increasingly important to test… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure