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jitlim
In this blog, we will address the issue of failing inter-op after getting certification for USB Type-C TX and RX compliance testing. This is particularly painful after the product is certified and shipped, and you have numerous customer returns and field failures.   The first step is to get the product back for retest and very often it passes in… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  The disruptive switch to PAM-4 (or PAM4) signaling which is used in 400 Gb Ethernet, 64G Fibre Channel and other standards creates new questions. It’s time to find answers with this new video tutorial series that provides quick insights. The second tutorial covers the optical PAM-4 standards that are evolving right now and compares parallel… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  The disruptive switch to PAM-4  (or PAM4) signaling used in 400 Gb Ethernet, 64G Fibre Channel and other standards comes along with new questions. It’s time to find answers with this new video tutorial series that provides quick insights.     This first tutorial starts with the basic question: why do data centers need PAM-4 at all? It also… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In this blog, we will address some of the most confusing topics while RX testing a USB Type-C link. When is RX testing not RX testing? If I add the precise RX characteristics (CTLE, DFE, and clock recovery), doesn’t that qualify as a RX test? I have always included CTLE and clock recovery during RX testing? Why can’t I simply force loopback?  … (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  Key considerations in choosing an optical power meter  Optical power meters for testing fiber optic components use semiconductor photodiodes as detectors to generate electrical current proportional to the incident optical power. This photocurrent is then measured, typically with a transimpedance amplifier and analog-to-digital converter, to… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
As USB3.1 Gen 2 comes into the mainstream, we have learned a lot from testing early silicon and systems. In this blog, we will discuss common pitfalls that prevent certification, and steps you can take to ensure your product gets certified.   The first pitfall, is not getting and implementing the latest updates to the USB 3.1 specification.  … (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In a previous blog, we talked about a basic Type-C implementation without USB-PD. Today, we will discuss all the wonderful capabilities USB-PD brings to the Type-C connector plus a very important topic: SAFETY.   A non-PD Type-C implementation allows plug flipping and cable swapping. It also allows significant capability over BC 1.2, with non-PD… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
For proper USB testing, the first step is to get a copy of the USB 3.1 spec, CTS (Compliance Test Specification), and ECNs (Engineering Change Notice) from the USB-IF and ensure that your product meets the spec requirements. The link budgets for USB 3.1 are shown in Figure 1. To understand this diagram, let’s use the last row as an example. A… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
USB Type-C connections bring you high-speed data rates, support multiple protocols and much more power than USB 3.0. Quickly see how the USB Type-C benefits will expand your electronics connectivity.    Create a Faster Path to Done USB Type-C Design and Test Learn more about USB Type-C at Keysight   Don;t forget to follow the Internet… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure