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jitlim
In addition to USB, the Type-C connector allows implementation of Alternate technologies like DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, and HDMI.   A recent announcement from Intel will radically change future generations of Type-C implementations: https://newsroom.intel.com/editorials/envision-world-thunderbolt-3-everywhere/   We will focus on the 2 key points… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
As people use more applications on their phones, tablets, computers, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the  network needed to deliver the data is constantly being upgraded for the constantly increasing bandwidth demand. Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signaling is a leading contender for implementing the 56G lane data rate which… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
With the widespread move to wafer-scale production with integrated photonics technology, the throughput for testing needs to be optimized. A significant part of the time for optical testing on wafers and chips is often used for optimizing the probe coupling. An extra aspect of this for optical coupling involves testing with the intended… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
Standardization for next generation data communications links operating at 400 Gb/s continues to make steady progress.  With the basic architectures defined, the task of setting link budgets and subsequent transmitter and receiver specifications is also moving forward.  Making the leap from 100 Gb/s to 400 Gb/s is not trivial, as technology is… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
Enabling 400G / 1T coherent communications requires the generation and analysis of test signals using more complex modulation formats such as 64-QAM and higher symbol rates up to 64 GBd. Reaching these speeds imposes much higher requirements on each of the individual parts of a data transmission system. It becomes increasingly important to test… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  This poster gives you a broad overview on all the new evolving standards for your path to 400Gb/s - in core fiber networks and data centers, for electrical and optical interconnects. Tackling this data rate comes along with novel test challenges and requirements. New parameters have been defined for judging the signal quality under tightening… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
PAM-4 signaling is a very popular data format for high-speed communication links in datacenters. A clock recovery unit is needed for transmitter and receiver characterization. Many PAM-4 SERDES use retimers so the clock must be recovered from the data stream. Keysight provides electrical and optical clock recovery solutions that operate with… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
The fundamental test for these network elements is the bit error ratio, demonstrating reliable operation in digital data transmission systems and networks. The basic principle is simple: the known transmitted bits are compared with the received bits over a transmission link including the device under test. The bit errors are counted and compared… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
With the need for 100 Gb/s links in data communication, the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group has included implementations for reach up to 10 km (100GBASE-LR4) or, with tighter tolerances, 30 km (100GBASE-ER4) by using four wavelength channels in single mode fiber, centered at: 231.4 THz (1295.56 nm), 230.6 THz (1300.05 nm), 229.8 THz (1304.58… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In this blog, we will address the issue of failing inter-op after getting certification for USB Type-C TX and RX compliance testing. This is particularly painful after the product is certified and shipped, and you have numerous customer returns and field failures.   The first step is to get the product back for retest and very often it passes in… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
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