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stmichel
Enabling 400G / 1T coherent communications requires the generation and analysis of test signals using more complex modulation formats such as 64-QAM and higher symbol rates up to 64 GBd. Reaching these speeds imposes much higher requirements on each of the individual parts of a data transmission system. It becomes increasingly important to test… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  This poster gives you a broad overview on all the new evolving standards for your path to 400Gb/s - in core fiber networks and data centers, for electrical and optical interconnects. Tackling this data rate comes along with novel test challenges and requirements. New parameters have been defined for judging the signal quality under tightening… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
PAM-4 signaling is a very popular data format for high-speed communication links in datacenters. A clock recovery unit is needed for transmitter and receiver characterization. Many PAM-4 SERDES use retimers so the clock must be recovered from the data stream. Keysight provides electrical and optical clock recovery solutions that operate with… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
The fundamental test for these network elements is the bit error ratio, demonstrating reliable operation in digital data transmission systems and networks. The basic principle is simple: the known transmitted bits are compared with the received bits over a transmission link including the device under test. The bit errors are counted and compared… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
With the need for 100 Gb/s links in data communication, the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group has included implementations for reach up to 10 km (100GBASE-LR4) or, with tighter tolerances, 30 km (100GBASE-ER4) by using four wavelength channels in single mode fiber, centered at: 231.4 THz (1295.56 nm), 230.6 THz (1300.05 nm), 229.8 THz (1304.58… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In this blog, we will address the issue of failing inter-op after getting certification for USB Type-C TX and RX compliance testing. This is particularly painful after the product is certified and shipped, and you have numerous customer returns and field failures.   The first step is to get the product back for retest and very often it passes in… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  The disruptive switch to PAM-4 (or PAM4) signaling which is used in 400 Gb Ethernet, 64G Fibre Channel and other standards creates new questions. It’s time to find answers with this new video tutorial series that provides quick insights. The second tutorial covers the optical PAM-4 standards that are evolving right now and compares parallel… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  The disruptive switch to PAM-4  (or PAM4) signaling used in 400 Gb Ethernet, 64G Fibre Channel and other standards comes along with new questions. It’s time to find answers with this new video tutorial series that provides quick insights.     This first tutorial starts with the basic question: why do data centers need PAM-4 at all? It also… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
jitlim
In this blog, we will address some of the most confusing topics while RX testing a USB Type-C link. When is RX testing not RX testing? If I add the precise RX characteristics (CTLE, DFE, and clock recovery), doesn’t that qualify as a RX test? I have always included CTLE and clock recovery during RX testing? Why can’t I simply force loopback?  … (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
  Key considerations in choosing an optical power meter  Optical power meters for testing fiber optic components use semiconductor photodiodes as detectors to generate electrical current proportional to the incident optical power. This photocurrent is then measured, typically with a transimpedance amplifier and analog-to-digital converter, to… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
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