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stmichel
  It has been quite a while since our last PAM4 tutorial. The 400G standards have matured since and on the electrical and optical side as expected pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) is a predominant modulation format. The transition from non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to PAM4 means many substantial changes. It comes alongside with new quality tests,… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
One of the most important ways to determine the quality of a digital transmission system is to measure its Bit Error Ratio (BER). The BER is calculated by comparing the transmitted sequence of bits to the received bits and counting the number of errors. The ratio of how many bits received in error over the number of total bits received is the BER.… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
What to expect from PCIe Gen5? Ever heard of Cache coherent interconnect for accelerators (CCIX), GenZ, NVLink or OpenCAPI? If you haven’t, you soon will. These wave of technologies is currently pushing the incumbent PCIe to faster speeds. PCIe Gen4 is just becoming mainstream, but has limited bandwidth, given the needs of today’s technologies at… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
#DDR  #DDR4 #DDR5 #DRAM #RAM   DDR4 was the first DRAM technology to break the High Speed Digital paradigm that focuses on signal timing and Voh/Vol/Vih/Vil based noise margin analysis. DDR4 speeds demanded an approach more like what’s used in specifying, designing and testing high speed serial interfaces like SATA, USB 3.0 and PCI-Express (up to… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure
stmichel
    The test of an integrated intradyne coherent receiver (#ICR) as defined by Optical Internetworking Forum requires many parameters to test for each device. These devices can be tested in the above illustrated setup quickly and easily. Again the EVM concept offers a powerful tool to verify the overall quality of an ICR within a second. This… (Show more)
in Internet Infrastructure