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A couple of weeks ago, Jeff Harris wrote the first of a series of blogs on Blockchain. In this second installment, I build on his overview and explore the methods used to create a trusted distributed ledger. To develop this understanding, I am going to use the example of a checkbook to explore one of the first blockchain implementations: cryptocurrency. I’ll provide an overview of:


  • How a transaction is initiated on the network
  • How the transaction moves on the network and is validated
  • How the transaction is recorded into the permanent ledger (the blockchain)


The parts of a checkbook: the ledger, the checkbook, the check, and the bank


1. The ledger

Blockchain technology is a distributed ledger with no centralized storage. All cryptocurrencies are built on blockchain. You can think of blockchain like a checkbook ledger. When you write a check to someone, you enter the transaction into the ledger. When someone sends you a check, you deposit it and that transaction is also recorded in the ledger. In a cryptocurrency system, blockchain is the ledger, but unlike your checkbook ledger, it is a public file and it contains copies of every account and every transaction extending back to the beginning of time for the currency.


2. The check

When we want to pay a debt or transfer funds, we pull out our checkbook and write a check. The check records the parameters of the transaction and provides a physical form of proof, including our signature. When we take the check to the bank, the bank transforms that paper record into a digital transaction conducted on a centralized compute system. Blockchain eliminates the check and the central compute system, replacing it with a distributed system.


3. The checkbook

In bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, the checkbook is replaced by a computer client called a “wallet.” The wallet client lets the end-user submit transactions to the cryptocurrency network. It also transforms the client into a node that can validate and process transactions coming from other places on the network. This latter functionality is called mining, and it is critical to building trust and consensus on the blockchain. Individuals are incentivized to participate in mining via rewards given for finding solutions to extremely difficult mathematical problems.


4. Writing a check

The act of writing a check is executed through the wallet client or an API which communicates to the wallet client. Each currency is different, but in general a transaction includes the sender wallet ID, the receiver or receivers, the amount to be transferred, and any fees associated with the transaction. Some currencies include other fields as well. Once this information is entered, the node announces the transaction to its peers. As an example, in a Bitcoin network, a node will typically establish at least 8 peer-to-peer connections.


5. Processing the check

Banks process checks centrally. They verify the integrity of the check (signature, anti-counterfeiting measures, account numbers, etc). Once validated, they create a digital transaction in a central computer system. The central system applies debits and credits to the accounts in question, and money is exchanged.


In a cryptocurrency transaction, the blockchain replaces the central computer system and the accounts. The blockchain is the ledger of all accounts. It is distributed, open, and pseudo-anonymous: Anyone can inspect the blockchain and see all the transactions, and which accounts they went to, but there is no personally identifying information to connect an account to a person. It is possible to walk through the blockchain just like you can walk back through your checkbook ledger to the beginning of time when you opened the account.


6. Validating and recording the transaction

Validating a transaction in a cryptocurrency network works similarly to our checking example. Blockchain transactions are submitted to the network by a wallet node. The wallet node shares the transaction to its peers via a peer-to-peer mechanism. Receiving nodes immediately validate the transaction and, if valid, announce it to their peers. All peers in the network will repeat this process, ensuring the integrity of the blockchain.


Validation may include many checks, but two are critical: Verifying the authenticity of the sender, and verifying that funds exist to pay the debt in the transaction. The sender used private key cryptography to verify his or her identity when the transaction was submitted, thus that condition is already met. To verify that funds exist, each node searches the blockchain and determines if the sender has received or earned funds that have not yet been committed to any other transaction. To perform this validation, every full node maintains either a full copy of the blockchain, or a subset with all the relevant unspent prior transactions.


Once any node validates a received transaction, it forwards it to its peer nodes, and also stores it in a transaction queue for later recording into the blockchain. Through this process, the transaction propagates through the entire network.


7. Recording the transaction to the ledger

Up until this point, the transaction is only stored in a queue, waiting to be committed to the ledger. This last step is the equivalent of the bank actually moving money between accounts.


When enough transactions have accumulated, or enough time has passed, the transactions in queue will be assembled into a block. Each cryptocurrency has specific rules about how blocks are put together. These rules may cover details such as: What order can transactions be put it? What defines the priority? How many transactions are allowed per block? How often is a block committed to the chain? And so on. These details are important to the performance characteristics of the blockchain in question. As you think about other applications for blockchain technology, you will find parameters like time to resolution, latency, and number of transactions per second are important to different systems.


The blockchain network for the currency dictates the rules of how blocks are assembled. Once a client can meet those rules, it forms a block from the transaction queue, and then starts work on a very hard computational puzzle related to the block. The block is not committed to the blockchain until a valid solution to that puzzle is solved. Each cryptocurrency has its own puzzle. The process of finding the solution to the puzzle is called mining. We’ll take a deeper look at how mining works in the next chapter.


When a node finds the solution to a puzzle, it broadcasts that solution and associated block to the network. Remember, finding the solution to the puzzle is exceptionally difficult and time consuming. However, verifying a given solution is fast and easy. All receiving clients check the work, and confirm the solution is valid. Once they validate the block, they record the block to the local copy of the blockchain and forward on the new block to the network. The block is now committed to the blockchain. As a reward for the work, the owner of the lucky node that solved the puzzle gets a prize: cryptocurrency coins.


Integrity of the blockchain

At this point, the process repeats itself, with the next batch of transactions being formed into a new block. One last concept is crucial to understanding blockchain: The new block contains a permanent reference to the previous block. Because each block has a link to the previous block, if one block is changed, all blocks that reference it must have their work puzzle re-computed.


This chaining mechanism ensures the integrity of the blockchain by making it nearly impossible to change transactions once they are validated and recorded. The longer a transaction has been on the blockchain, the less likely it is to ever be changed. This is why the computationally expensive work function is integral: it is the mechanism that creates the trust necessary for a distributed, decentralized ledger.


While blockchain is a peer-to-peer technology, not all parts of the process require full peer-to-peer meshing. In particular, solving the puzzle may be done by a system of many computers that share the work. When this is implemented, the mining traffic will look more like client-server traffic than peer-to-peer. If you want to understand more about the network traffic of a blockchain transaction, watch for the fourth part in this series, where we look at this in greater depth.

It feels like it’s been a long time coming, but 5G is nearly here. After the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) published the first specifications in December 2017, 5G gained real momentum following its successful commercial debut at the Winter Olympics. The Games showcased a range of advanced applications delivered at scale, including driverless buses using 5G links to navigate, and live 4K video streaming of high-profile events.


This was followed closely by the giant Mobile World Congress 2018. During the event, leading mobile operators including AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon all announced timetables for commercial 5G rollouts in the U.S. over the next 18 months. The 3GPP is also expected to publish the final 5G standards in the next few weeks.


However, despite all this high-profile activity and media hype around applications such as autonomous cars and instant HD video streaming on mobiles, there’s still a long way to go before the technology becomes fully mainstream. Progress towards large-scale 5G deployments is going to take time. Innovative new products and services will need careful development and exhaustive testing to ensure they meet the required performance and reliability standards.


With this in mind, what will the initial 5G implementations look like over the next 18 to 24 months? And what can we anticipate from the technology in the longer term? Network Computing recently published our article describing what we can realistically expect to see between now and 2020, and here’s a recap of what’s coming into view:


Raising speed limits

Commercial 5G networks are due to be in place in several cities worldwide by the end of this year, with South Korea likely to be first and the U.S. and Europe close behind. But this won’t immediately herald a raft of new services and applications. Instead, consumers in these cities will experience faster performance on their mobile devices (regardless of whether they are 5G enabled) as carriers test the scalability of their networks and services.


As a result, existing high-bandwidth, low-latency services such as video streaming will be the most notable difference experienced by users. As we move into 2019, we’ll also see the launch of a range of 5G-enabled devices, which will be able to exploit emerging fixed wireless internet services. These will deliver even faster content delivery for both consumers and business users.


Catching the mmWave

3GPP’s imminent release of the next set of 5G standards will be focused on mmWave. We can expect rapid progress to be made in the next 12 months in high-density deployments of small cells and mmWave-ready devices, ready to take advantage of the higher bandwidth and low latency it offers. mmWave will also be the enabler for large-scale IoT deployments. This will accelerate the move towards smart cities, in which tens of millions of devices will connect and interact to streamline processes and inform decisions.


Diving into immersive experiences

Much has been made of the immersive VR and AR experiences that 5G will support, in areas ranging from leisure and sports to education, training, and even remote medicine. In most cases, we’re unlikely to see these become everyday applications until at least 2020. However, many leading carriers and manufacturers such as Korea Telecom, Verizon, Samsung and Qualcomm are conducting demonstrations at scale, so we can fully expect the promise of these experiences to be realized.


In conclusion, the rollout of 5G will not be a sprint, but a marathon. While the deployments we’ve seen to date show how the technology can be deployed at scale, there’s still a way to go before it can be extended to a national or international level. As the standards crystallize, 5G will evolve through extensive testing of networks and devices in real-world conditions, to ensure that it delivers the performance and reliability expected of it.


Find out about how Keysight is helping world-leading companies to accelerate their 5G innovations here.

It happened to me again today. Someone asked me for information that I know I have on my hard drive, somewhere in my archival “system.” All I had to do was find the file and send it to the person and life would be good. How hard can that be?

Instead, I spent 20 minutes searching through my C: drive. Surely, I had put it in a safe place where it was easy to find. Often, I end up with important things archived as email, so I checked my humongous inbox and a few of my large email archives. (I do save everything. Disk storage is cheap.)


Success! I did find the file and sent it to my colleague who was pleased to see it.


All Too Common

I’m sure this has never happened to you. You are organized. You know where all your important documents are and can access them instantly. But for most of us, we struggle with managing data.


Recently, a study of design engineers found that many of them are wasting 20% of their technical time on nonproductive data management tasks. That is one day per week. I was surprised by how large this number was so we asked our customers about this issue. Sure enough, many of them reported similar percentages of wasted time in their teams, so this problem is real. What would you give to improve your engineer’s effectiveness by 20%?


I suppose this should not surprise us. We live in the information age, but many of our tools are not that great at handling information. It seems that most of these tools put the burden on the user to manage the data, instead of automating the task.


Make Decisions and Get to Market

The pressure to get products to market fast never stops. Being first to market is a critical factor in most industries. 

When we asked customers about their frustrations with managing design-related data, we got an earful.


Yes, they see wasted time due to fumbling with their data, and this results in engineering inefficiency. More importantly though, they often lacked confidence in the data they used to make key decisions. Is the design ready to be released to manufacturing? Well, the data indicates so, but are we looking at the right data?


Often, an expert engineer has to personally check the data to be sure it is right. In some cases, customers reported that they rerun a set of measurements because they aren’t confident in the archived data. It shouldn’t be this difficult or time consuming.


Management of Product Development Data integrated into enterprise systems

Figure 1: Management of product development data must be integrated into the enterprise systems


Easy access to the right data is never the end goal. There is always some business decision in play based on the data (check out Brad Doerr's post Extracting Insights from Your Messy Data for another perspective). What we really want and need is to be able to pull insight from our design and test data, to make critical decisions quickly and with confidence.


Check out this whitepaper where I explore the topic more fully and learn what actions you can take: Accelerate Innovation by Improving Product Development Processes


Cryptocurrency news roared in like a lion in 2018. As 2017 came to a close, Bitcoin shares briefly peaked over $19,000 USD. It got me to thinking, a lot.


I made a mental note: I should have bought BTC a year earlier at the bargain price of $997 a coin. I also made a note to research how Bitcoin and other blockchain technologies would impact networks and businesses in 2018. This blog series is the result of that research.


Underneath the success of Bitcoin and Monero is a fundamental technology shift, called Blockchain. Understanding why bitcoins didn’t implode in the first year requires understanding how digital ledgers work. If you want that understanding, this primer is for you. Starting where it all began, out of necessity, blockchain became a method for allowing a new cryptocurrency to emerge and evolve, all designed to avoid middlemen.


In an article called A Brief History of Blockchain, Harvard Business Review calls blockchain a “quiet revolution.” Bitcoin and the underlying digital ledger technology that made it possible were introduced as an alternative to government-backed currencies nearly a decade ago. Today, cryptocurrency transaction volume is over $1B a day.

Blockchain is what is called a digital, or distributed ledger, essentially acting as a distributed database with no centralized data storage. Bitcoin was the first and most popular application of blockchain technology, though it is gaining momentum in a lot of other business applications. That underlying technology allows Bitcoin to be decentralized and fully transparent – this is one of the fundamental principles of the currency. Any person can trace the history of transactions through the blockchain at any time.


Bitcoin client discovery resembled earlier peer-to-peer protocols like BitTorrent, but the similarities ended there. Bitcoin does not need much bandwidth, and while the client accepted connections on port 8333, the client could participate in a limited fashion even without inbound connectivity. A one-time blockchain transferred several gigabytes of data, but subsequent activities were only small flows of a few hundred kilobytes.


Transactions are crowd processed on the Internet, where individuals can opt into processing individual blockchain transactions in exchange for bitcoin compensation. Those transaction processors contribute their computer’s CPU power, bandwidth, and electricity, and when they deliver an answer, they earn their own Bitcoins. We can call that the processing fee. The “work” they are providing is validating transactions, ultimately creating security by computing complex math problems. And what is the reward? In 2010, the value of the coins was negligible; Laszlo Hanyecz famously exchanged 10,000 of them for two Papa John’s pizzas, pegging their value at roughly a quarter-cent each. I am sure he wished he kept those.


The Value of Bitcoin

In 2010, a blockchain processor, often called a cryptominer, could earn 50 BTC for solving the complex problem. That reward was worth about 12 cents. Today, one Bitcoin is worth thousands of US dollars, and the solution rewards 12.5 BTC, or $87,500 given a target price of $7,000 per coin. You can always look up today’s bitcoin value. But how can a virtual currency gain value? It gains value because of trust, and that trust comes from the transparency and security of blockchain.


Compute Power Required

It is a race to the prize. Finding the solution to win the block prize of 12.5 BTC is approximately 3.5 trillion times harder than it was in 2010. Bitcoin, and all crypto-currencies like it, has a built-in mechanism that makes mining harder as more resources are thrown at it. This keeps the supply of new coins constant, while incentivizing further investment in coin mining hardware. Difficulty will continue to increase as long as miners can sell a coin for more than the cost of finding a coin.


Bitcoin’s proof-of-work is based on the SHA256 algorithm, a hashing function commonly used in security protocols. SHA256 can be massively optimized, and this has been exploited in the Bitcoin community. Miners turned first to GPUs, then FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays), and finally ASICs (application specific integrated circuits), seeking ever-higher performance.


Today, an ASIC miner can deliver 140,000 times the performance of a desktop PC (see table below on relative Bitcoin mining performance). Even pooling thousands of PCs proved inefficient vs. a single ASIC miner, thus nearly all Bitcoin mining is done via ASIC-miners today. However, other currencies are growing in popularity, and some are highly suited to distributed mining efforts.


ProcessorBitcoin SHA256 hashing performance (in millions of hashes per second)Cost
Intel i7 CPU system100 MH/sec$300
Nvidia GTX 1080Ti GPU1,000 MH/sec$400
Antminer S9 ASIC miner14,000,000 MH/sec$2,320


Distributed Mining

One of the biggest changes in the blockchain world is pooling of resources. As the work function to process a blockchain transaction grows more difficult, it becomes harder to find the next solution. To increase the odds of quickly finding the next solution, creative miners have turned to load balancing. Cybercurrency work functions can be easily distributed across large numbers of clients, a process called “pooling.”


Pool operators incentivize individuals to join a pool in exchange for a share of the profits. As mentioned earlier, pooling workstations is ineffective for Bitcoins due to the sheer performance advantage of ASIC miners. However, other blockchain applications utilize different proof-of-work algorithms, and some of these can provide very competitive returns when mined in pools.


Of course, whenever there are transactions being conducted in what are considered public forums, such as the internet, there will always be those looking to exploit system vulnerabilities for personal profit. Because of this, continuous active monitoring of your network is vital.


The Simple Equation

As of June, 2018, 0.32% of the world’s electricity is used to process bitcoin transactions at a cost of nearly $3B a year. In April, that number was 0.27%. That’s a big jump. This marks a shift in how transaction processing is being done. It also marks a shift in how distributed processing is changing the landscape of enterprises as they adopt blockchain for everything from B2B purchase orders to international corporate funds transfers to supply chain management. We can learn a lot from cryptocurrencies as they are innovating blockchain processing in new and exciting ways.


In the next chapter, we will look more closely at how these currencies work, and the reasons why new currencies rise and become viable. This is important when considering how to craft corporate policies not just for cryptocurrency, but using blockchain operations in your business and on your network. We may also explore threat vectors bad actors use to compromise systems, and how a network visibility architecture can ensure you have only legitimate transactions within your business network.

It’s estimated that more of the global population own a mobile phone than a toothbrush. This simple statistic highlights the gulf between how advanced our technology has become, and the scale of the global problems that we still need to solve.


The challenges we face over the next 20 years are truly complex. For example:

  • Global energy consumption will increase by 28% by 2040. How do we create and manage the energy to support this demand?
  • Nearly a billion people worldwide don’t have enough to eat. How do we improve agricultural and food production to end hunger?
  • Nearly a billion people don’t have access to clean water. How do we improve sanitation and reduce disease?
  • How do we address the issues of global climate change?


Meeting these challenges requires new generations of problem solvers across a diverse range of sectors, who can invent solutions and apply them for everyone’s benefit. But where will those problem solvers come from?


According to the Smithsonian Science Education Center, 2.4 million science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) jobs will go unfilled this year. 78% of high school graduates don't meet benchmark readiness for one or more college courses in mathematics, science, reading, or English. There is also a significant lack of women in STEM fields, and even greater underrepresentation of people from diverse ethnic groups.


In order to solve the problems facing our society and planet, the first challenge we need to overcome is closing the STEM skills gap. That means increasing students’ interest in STEM subjects, and building their skills in these areas.


Advancing education worldwide

This is why Keysight operates education programs worldwide, to demonstrate our values and commitment to corporate citizenship and helping to solve the most pressing global issues. By engaging directly with the communities where we operate, and encouraging employees to get involved in local, national and international projects, we are making strong progress towards our key impact goals in education and community action.


Our activities in these areas involve:

  • School education programs, including direct school support programs, education events and science fair volunteerism
  • University relations, including research grants and class engagement programs such as guest lecturing
  • Software and equipment donations and discounts to higher education establishments
  • Employee volunteering: Keysight policy allows four hours of paid time monthly for volunteering on educational or charitable work
  • Ongoing employee education and communication to conserve natural resources and reduce waste: Keysight has the goal of recognizing $2 million in cost avoidance, 10% energy conservation and 15% water conservation by the end of fiscal year 2020 (using our fiscal year 2015 as a baseline)


The Keysight After School education program is a great example of how we are encouraging young students’ interest and abilities in STEM subjects. It’s a hands-on science course for children aged 9 to 13, featuring over 20 different life, physical and earth-science experiments, designed as complete ‘programs-in-a-box.’ Students can build electronic-circuit games, balloon-powered cars and explore clean-water engineering, learning first-hand about how STEM drives innovation and creativity. These programs are delivered completely free of charge to the host organizations, which range from schools and community centers to museums, and even hospitals. Such engagements will truly impact the way the students think and spark creative problem-solving ideas in these young scientists and engineers – as a school district’s STEM coordinator remarked, “I know that this was an experience that they will remember for quite some time.”


And at the other end of the education journey, we are actively supporting next-generation research at some of the world’s leading universities, as the opening of a new research lab in collaboration with Queen’s University Belfast showed. This state-of-the-art facility will enable pioneering research that will drive the future of communications.


Keysight’s CSR goals

Education and community support are two of Keysight’s four key impact goal areas, and our latest 2017 CSR Report highlights the strong progress we are making towards the targets we set for ourselves. By end fiscal year 2020, we plan to engage upwards of 570,000 students and future engineers through a mixture of education strategies: the Report shows that to date, we have engaged 275,000, so we are almost halfway to our goal. We also planned to commit over $1 billion in value to community strengthening efforts, and so far we have delivered $685 million in value.


Solving problems and raising next-gen problem solvers

Keysight creates and develops technology to help solve problems and drive innovation. We also recognize the need to develop the skills that enable people to utilize our technology to address global challenges. Our CSR community programs are helping to nurture that next generation of problem solvers who’d give back to the society and ultimately make the world a better place to live in.

In recent weeks, my inbox has been filled with daily reminders of how far data privacy has come. The E.U. General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) became effective May 25, and multinational corporations from Target to Twitter have been notifying their customers of the steps they have taken to comply with the new law.


At first that might not seem noteworthy: Under the GDPR, all companies processing personal data of E.U. residents must apply new rigor to their collection and use of that data and adopt a heightened level of transparency. For instance, companies must document the E.U. personal data they collect, the purposes for processing it, and any transfers to third parties. They must also integrate privacy into their businesses by conducting privacy impact assessments for any new activities that might pose a high risk to the privacy rights of E.U. residents. And companies must provide clear notice of how they use personal data and how individuals can exercise their rights regarding their personal data. Hence, the emails.

But I don’t live in the E.U., and the GDPR does not apply to my personal data. So why are all of these companies emailing me?

The answer, I believe, highlights a fundamental shift in how the corporate world is approaching data privacy. Companies across industries are choosing to apply GDPR-compliant policies and practices to all customers no matter where they live. This choice likely is driven by many factors, such as the realization that in a connected world, region-specific policies are no longer practical. But at some level, companies are recognizing the growing importance of privacy rights to all individuals, particularly when it comes to the collection and use of their personal information. Long considered a fundamental right in the E.U., the right to the protection of personal data has appeal outside of the E.U. as well in an age of identity theft, state-sponsored hacking and the exposure of social media. But no matter the reason, the result is the global extension of the E.U.’s new best-in-class law, accelerating the expansion of privacy rights well beyond what regulators alone could accomplish. And likely there is no going back.


Keysight and GDPR

In preparing for the GDPR, Keysight too has taken the global view. Our commitment to operating with uncompromising integrity has long included honoring individual privacy rights and protecting the personal data we hold. Keysight’s Standards of Business Conduct includes a dedicated provision on data privacy, and functional groups within Keysight have maintained specific policies and procedures to ensure that personal data is handled appropriately. To strengthen our existing privacy controls, Keysight has:

  • Introduced a new Global Data Privacy Policy, which sets out clearly how we process personal data and provides guidelines for employees worldwide handling personal data in their jobs;
  • Updated our Customer Privacy Statement and Employee Data Privacy Statement to ensure we are providing clear, transparent notice to individuals about how Keysight collects, processes and transfers personal data;
  • Developed a global process to provide individuals access to their personal data, as well as the ability to request correction or deletion of that data;
  • Required that all vendors that process substantial personal data on Keysight’s behalf enter into data privacy agreements to govern the transfer and processing of the data;
  • Adapted our collection of individual customer contact information to ensure we are meeting GDPR requirements around consent;
  • Reviewed and documented Keysight’s personal data processing activities – from marketing to HR to workplace solutions and beyond – to ensure compliance with GDPR principles; and
  • Trained each of our [approximately 11,000] employees on the GDPR and its requirements.


GDPR: A shift for the better, globally

It is exciting to witness the advancement of privacy rights in the E.U. and the expansion of those rights beyond E.U. borders. While this means a lot more work for multinational corporations, we are all better for it.

On a recent Uber ride in Colorado Springs, my driver was a retiree of Anheuser-Busch, who recently started his Uber career mostly for the social aspects of the job. With pride, he talked about the start of his career at Anheuser-Busch as a truck driver, delivering beer to local restaurants and working up the ladder and becoming a sales and office manager. He benefited from the national introduction of Bud Light in the 1980s, which is now one of the best-selling beer brands in the world.

As usual I was looking for connection points and similarities to our industry, particularly in the sales organization. On Keysight Investor day, Senior Vice President of Global Sales, Mark Wallace, outlined three areas that triggered me to strike up the following beer-to-high-tech commonalities:


  1. Direct and indirect sales model: Keysight has more than 650 channel resellers and solution partners to reach every single engineer who could benefit from our test equipment, solutions, and services. My Uber driver emphasized the importance of scalability by selling to 7-Eleven stores around the city, touching customers who might not be touched through their traditional channels.
  2. Deep customer connections: Just as our retiree knew each and every restaurant, convenience store, and even military base in town, our 2700 Keysight customer-facing and customer-support resources foster deep customer relationships on a daily basis, serving more than 32,000 customers in 100 countries around the world.
  3. Innovation is a constant requirement no matter which industry we’re talking about. According to Forbes magazine, the number one beer trend of 2018 is “better beer.” While classic domestic beers, such as Bud, Miller and Coors still dominate but are declining, other styles of craft beer, India Pale Ale (IPAs) or wheat beers are rising in popularity. Correlating this to electronic test and measurement, we see market segmentation as well. What was good enough twenty years ago is no longer sufficient as demands for better quality and sophisticated needs rise. Keysight welcomes a similar challenge. To drastically simplify, our solutions might well be the IPAs and our traditional products are the Buds, Millers and Coors of this world. Our classic products and hardware are still very central and core to our customer’s success. Our deep understanding on market trends, participation in standards bodies and hundreds of customer engagements all come together in workflow solutions, layering software and hardware while assisting our customers with their productivity and cost challenges.
  1. As an example, just recently Keysight and Qualcomm Technologies, have achieved 2 Gbps LTE download data speeds using Keysight’s 5G Protocol R&D Toolset solution and Qualcomm Technologies’ mobile test device. The 5G protocol test solution, a part of Keysight’s suite of Network Emulation Solutions is the only seamless radio frequency (RF) and protocol workflow approach that enables chipset and device manufacturers to efficiently develop and test the latest 4G and evolving 5G standards in a single solution.
  2. Or, as seen at the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC) in March, Innolight, a global leader in high-speed optical transceivers, uses a wide array of Keysight solutions in the development of their 400G OSFP 2xFR4 and LR8, 400G QSFP-DD FR4 and SR8 transceivers for 400G PAM4 data center applications.

These are just two examples of Keysight solutions. Whether you innovate designs as a 5G device manufacturer, an LTE service provider, or a car manufacturer, Keysight helps you to get there faster while creating, optimizing, and monitoring with more confidence.


I hope you enjoyed this Uber detour with some beer tasting of domestic classics, IPAs and craft beers. Please feel free to comment. Prost!