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2017

 

In my first post, I described how counterfeits can be found anywhere and that Keysight can no longer ignore this fact. Our customers know this too, which is why they pressure their suppliers to put systems in place to avoid the introduction of any suspect material into their supply chains. Keysight solved this customer challenge by working with one of our most demanding customers—the Aerospace Defense Industry. By working together in a transparent manner, we ended up developing a government-grade counterfeit avoidance and response system to meet the US Department of Defense’s exacting DFARS (Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement) requirements.

 

  1. Ensure traceability. It’s imperative to be able to trace a product back as far as possible to the raw material. Lack of traceability is a huge risk indicator. Electronic components typically use date or lot codes, and if available, certificates of conformance.

 

  1. Buy from authorized channels. This may seem like a no-brainer, but some deals appear too good to pass up. And if you find yourself in a line-down situation, you may find yourself considering the grey market. Buying direct from the original component manufacturer or from one of their franchised distributors is the best upfront mechanism to vet suspect material. Once you move outside of these spaces, you enter the Open Market, which is fraught with risk and bad actors looking to make a quick buck. The best thing you can do is “know your supplier.”

 

  1. Put a response system in place.What data must be collected and who needs to be informed if a suspected counterfeit problem pops up? This response system must address internal concerns (failure in a Keysight instrument; evidence of rogue procurement from a bad actor), as well as industry alerts (GIDEP alert notifying industry that counterfeits have been found). Ownership of the issue from beginning to end is critical.

 

  1. Qualify a few reputable independent distributors. In the electronics world, independent distributors play a unique role in helping to locate and test for legitimate material. Strong independents differentiate themselves from pure brokers with membership to electronics organizations such as ERAI. They are typically set up with labs to perform robust visual and often electrical inspections. Force your purchasing arm to use only these qualified independents when facing a shortage. Keysight actually allowed one of our most demanding Aerospace Defense customers to audit our approved independents.

 

  1. Design for supply chain. This should go without saying, but do not design a product with components that are nearing the end of their lifecycle. This leads to large lifetime buys and exposure to the grey market. Along similar lines, consider buffering inventory for strategic sole-sourced material.

 

  1. Flow requirements down through your supply chain. You can add multiple layers of security by flowing counterfeit avoidance and response requirements down through your supply chain, whether to a contract manufacturer, semiconductor manufacturer, vineyard, or stockyard. Don’t assume anything. Trust but verify.

 

  1. Consider a tabletop exercise and be willing to go through a customer audit. Keysight performed an extensive internal walkthrough process and then volunteered to go through a three-day customer audit of our counterfeit avoidance and response system. This was followed by visits to two of our Independent distributors. This process demonstrated to our customer that we were serious about keeping the supply chain clean and serious about caring for our customers.

 

Although these practices were developed for the demanding Aerospace Defense industry, they can apply to a range of industries, from food to wine to pharmaceuticals to clothing and many more. Most industries deal with counterfeits in one way or another, and every competitive company on the planet takes its reputation and its relationship with customers seriously. With apologies to Groucho, that’s something you can’t afford to fake.

Our small town recently held an electronics recycling day to help families get rid of unwanted printers, laptops, TVs, and other devices. Just bring them to the local school and the devices get recycled for free. Great idea, right? Clean out your garage and promote sustainability at the same time!

 

Reduce and “re-use” is the prevailing term today, whether for used electronics or grocery bags. However, there’s a dark side to these electronics recycling events with unintended consequences that affect manufacturers and consumers around the globe. Today’s news is full of stories about used and counterfeit components finding their way into supposedly new, state-of-the-art products. In fact, counterfeit goods are everywhere these days, accounting for nearly half a trillion dollars in sales each year, or nearly 2.5 percent of all global imports. Electronic components are the single biggest piece of the counterfeit pie, generating billions of dollars a year for ethically challenged parts suppliers. It’s a pervasive problem with serious implications for original equipment manufacturers and their customers.  Here are the top four impacts of counterfeits.

 

End-user injuries

If you buy a Rolex watch on a street corner for $25, nobody gets hurt. But if you get an incredible deal on a hoverboard, don’t give it to your kid and definitely don’t try bringing it on an airplane. Last year, over 16,000 counterfeit hoverboards were seized by customs officials in Chicago after a well-documented series of fires injured people using the two-wheeled skateboards. In other news, a report by the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee was profiled in Forbes a few years ago, citing the presence of counterfeit electronic components in military and commercial aircraft. As the author of the article states, how comfortable would you be on your next commercial flight if you suspected that a key onboard system may contain suspected counterfeit parts? Thankfully airplanes have multiple layers of redundancy, but that doesn’t change the fact that real people and real lives are affected by counterfeit components in our increasingly electronics-centric world.

 

Critical mission failure

No matter what you make as a manufacturer, mission failure is always bad. However, in the tech-laden aerospace/defense industry, mission failure can be catastrophic. Military and space programs rely heavily on the authenticity and reliability of their electronics. Several years ago, a Bloomberg study reported that military jets bound for Afghanistan were outfitted with counterfeit memory chips, putting missions and lives at risk in a hot war zone. A separate report by WND concluded that high-altitude thermal missile sights delivered to the U.S. Army were compromised by counterfeit electronics components, and that the problem is widespread across U.S. defense systems. It’s one of the reasons the Department of Defense (DoD) implemented the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) in March 2014 to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts. The DFARS provides specifications for robust counterfeit avoidance and response systems, helping Keysight and U.S. government prime contractors meet the most rigorous standards of counterfeit detection, traceability, and response on the products we deliver. The DFARS continues to evolve, and the latest update by the DoD, in August 2016, introduced even stricter requirements for Keysight and prime contractors. Keysight has invested significant time, energy and resources to demonstrate compliance to this regulation inclusive of a full-blown Aerospace/Defense Customer Assessment in late 2015.

 

Decreased product reliability

A U.S. Senate report on counterfeit electronic components in defense supply chains contains an eye-opening description of the Shantou, China, counterfeiting district, where used electronic parts are extracted from old devices, washed in a river, dried on a riverbank, and sorted on a sidewalk. According to the report, the parts are then collected in “plastic bins filled with expensive brand-name components harvested from scrap printed circuit boards ready for processing.” Compare that to clean-room operations at reputable semiconductor facilities, where the air is one thousand times cleaner than the air in a hospital operating room. It’s the only way to ensure that components and boards are entirely free of dust and contaminants so they function exactly as intended, day after day.

 

Increased OPEX

Releasing defective products into the marketplace can be costly in a variety of ways. At the very least, handling a failed product increases operating expense by having to deal with Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) paperwork and processes. Depending on the product, you may incur the cost of the problem and modify manufacturing processes. In extreme cases, shipments might be delayed while you take your design back to the drawing board to determine the root cause of a defect. If the defect is ultimately traced back to a counterfeit component, you’ll have incurred those costs, and taken hits to your profit and reputation, for no reason. This is why Keysight has implemented and maintains a stringent counterfeit avoidance and response system, which we stress-test internally and with our subcontractors in an effort to continue to provide best-in-class instruments.

 

Our goal at Keysight is to ensure our customers receive authentic, genuine Keysight instruments. It’s not a trivial task in a global company where supply chains stretch to every corner of the world. But we have processes in place to block counterfeit devices from getting into our ecosystem, and to ensure the authenticity of every electronic component we put in our test systems. Illegitimate materials and fraud are real challenges across the industry, and as the counterfeiters get better, we will continue to work even harder to ensure that we stay one step ahead of the bad guys. In my next post, I’ll share some of the ways we’re doing that. Our best practices for addressing counterfeits have made a difference for us and might be useful for your organization as well.

Bill Hewlett used to say that measurement is the key to changing behavior. For example, if a driver wants to consume less gasoline in a car, measuring how driving habits affect gas mileage is the way to go. If a homeowner wants to use less electricity, measuring consumption over the course of a typical 24-hour day would reveal where usage is highest and thus where savings can be made. The “aha” moment—whether for consumers or product engineers—almost always comes from measurement. That’s what ends up driving a big change or breakthrough. Measurement is what brings insight, improvement, and innovation. It’s especially true in electronics because human beings do not have the senses to “measure” variations in electrical phenomena. Instrumentation is the only way to do it.

 

I’ve seen proof of the connection between measurement and innovation in the high tech world many times over the years. And I know from experience that the bigger the innovation, the stronger the connection. Here are three scenarios where I think it’s vital for manufacturers to “look beyond the catalog” when working with a measurement vendor. In each of these cases, manufacturers found that collaborating with a measurement supplier as a true partner was the key to bringing innovations to market.

 

Scenario 1: The technology you’re bringing to market goes far beyond existing technologies.

Incremental advances in technology can usually leverage existing test instruments. But big, disruptive advances in technology often require a similar leap forward in test and measurement equipment and processes. One good example is terabit transmission in long-haul optical links. This technology is in high demand and evolving quickly due to the explosive increase in internet traffic. The technological innovation required to achieve terabit transmission speeds was made possible only through the cooperation between measurement companies and manufacturers: Optical modulation technologies could be developed, characterized, and finally produced only by creating a new category of measurement instruments—today’s optical modulation analysis tools. 

 

Scenario 2: Your innovation crosses domains from one market to another.

There are many examples of innovations that were initially developed for one market or industry and then found their way into other markets. Tech-laden innovations from the electronics manufacturing world can make the jump, but quite often, the cross-over requires input from a measurement vendor to address deployment challenges and measurement problems. For example:  

  • Connected car technology. Most cars today have a radio unit that connects the car through the wireless network to the internet, making these cars essentially fast-moving cell phones. Many car makers have experience designing mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, and can benefit from the deep insight a measurement company brings to the game with rich experience in testing wireless systems. Expertise across both domains is table stakes when developing today’s vehicles.
  • Phased-array antenna technology. Widely deployed in aerospace/defense applications, this technology is now crossing over to the automotive world with breakthroughs in adaptive cruise control, blind-spot detection, and collision avoidance/mitigation systems. The challenge in automotive applications is related to consumer expectations—the technology needs to be small, affordable, and utterly reliable to be viable in consumer applications. While phased-array technology might be new to automotive engineers, it’s well known to measurement vendors who have experience in aerospace/defense. Automotive manufacturers can tap that expertise to more quickly integrate the technology.

 

A Keysight customer recently made the case for collaboration between manufacturers and test vendors when crossing domains. “With 5G…we’re tapping into an area of the radio spectrum that has been a big unknown for the mobile industry,” said Woojune Kim, vice president of Next-Generation Strategy, Samsung Electronics, in a recent press release. “Being able to work closely with Keysight and leveraging their expertise with network simulation, RF, and millimeter wave technologies is an advantage for our product validation efforts.”

 

Scenario 3: You need to transform a manufacturing process to meet business goals.

One of our customers, a large Asian manufacturer of lithium-ion battery cells, had a business challenge, a process challenge, and ultimately a measurement challenge for Keysight. The company’s manufacturing process typically yielded a number of battery cells that got flagged for retesting in post-production test. Retesting is expensive: The cells are charged, measurements are taken over a period of a few weeks, and finally the level of discharge is calculated. The expense comes not only in lost time but also in warehousing: cells needed to be stored somewhere while they’re self-discharging, adding inventory expense to the manufacturing process. The customer had a measurement request for Keysight: Could we find a way to reduce their retest cycle from three or four weeks to one hour? Behind it were the twin business goals of reducing inventory and reducing production-related expenses. Our answer was to invent a new product—a self-discharge analyzer—that uses advanced voltage and current matching techniques to measure a battery’s discharge rate in less than an hour. This solution eliminated both the self-discharge wait time and the inventory storage space for retesting batteries. It’s one of my favorite examples of how collaboration between a measurement vendor and a manufacturer can trigger significant innovations—at the business level, the process level, and the product level.  

 

I’ve seen each of these three scenarios play out over my career. Today I'm more convinced than ever that collaboration is the catalyst for all great innovations in electronics manufacturing. What about you? Where do you think manufacturers and measurement teams are having the biggest impact? Comment on this post and share your story. I’m willing to bet you know additional scenarios where manufacturers and their measurement partners are changing the world.